5 образуйте и переведите имена существительные от приведенных ниже глаголов с помощью суффиксов

Суффиксы.Упражнения.

Exercise 1. Образуйте профессии с помощью суффиксов -er, -r, -ian, -ist, -man.

music (музыка) science (наука)

Лучший юмористический канал: анекдоты, приколы, юмор и куча ржачных видео

a journal (журнал) art (искусство)

post (почта) sports (спорт)

to drive (водить машину) to manage (управлять)

reception (встреча) a photograph (фотография)

electric (электрический) to interpret (переводить)

politics (политика) to build (строить)

Exercise 2. Используйте суффиксы, чтобы сформировать новые слова в таблице. Где-то суффиксы надо добавить, а где-то убрать.

Существительные: ness, -ion, -ation, -ment, -ance, -ition

Прилагательные: al, -y, -ly, -ful, -ous, -tific

Прилагательное Существительное

1. lucky (удачный) luck (удача)

2. …… happiness (счастье)

3. wonderful (чудесный) ……

4. …… speed (скорость)

5. greedy (жадный) ……

7. …… danger (опасность)

8. traditional (традиционный) ……

9. …… science (наука)

11. …… truth (правда)

12. …… profession (профессия)

13. …… business (бизнес)

14. healthy (здоровый) ……

15. …… wealth (богатство)

Существительное Глагол

1. investigation (расследование) investigate (расследовать)

2. …… invite (приглашать)

3. discussion (обсуждение) ……

4. …… appear (выглядеть)

5. …… organize (организовать)

6. …… relax (расслабляться)

7. competition (соревнование) ……..

8. .………… invent (изобретать)

Exercise 3. Составьте как можно больше слов, добавляя к основе приставки и суффиксы. Используйте словарь. Переведите образовавшиеся слова.

Например: help (помогать) – helpful (услужливый), helpfulness (услужливость), unhelpful (неуслужливый), helpless (беспомощный), helplessness (беспомощность)

Приставки

un- mis- in- dis-

Основа/корень слова

Суффиксы

Ответы:

Exercise 1.

  1. musician (музыкант) 8. scientist (ученый)
  2. journalist (журналист) 9. artist (художник)
  3. postman (почтальон) 10. sportsman (спортсмен)
  4. driver (водитель) 11. manager (менеджер)
  5. receptionist (администратор) 12. photographer (фотограф)
  6. electrician (электрик) 13. interpreter (переводчик)
  7. politician (политик) 14. builder (строитель)

15. fireman (пожарный)

Exercise 2.

  1. lucky (удачный) 9. scientific (научный)
  2. happy (счастливый) 10. illness (болезнь)
  3. wonder (чудо) 11. truthful (правдивый)
  4. speedy (скоростной) 12. professional (профессиональный)
  5. greed (жадность) 13. busy (деловой)
  6. friendly (дружелюбный) 14. health (здоровье)
  7. dangerous (опасный) 15. wealthy (богатый)
  8. tradition (традиция)
  1. investigation (расследование) 5. organization (организация)
  2. invitation (приглашение) 6. relaxation (расслабление)
  3. (to) discuss (обсуждать) 7. (to) compete (соревноваться)
  4. appearance (внешность) 8. invention (изобретение)
  1. impossible (невозможный), possibility (возможность), impossibility (невозможность)
  2. impolite (невежливый), politeness (вежливость), impoliteness (невежливость)
  3. stressful (стрессовый), distress (недомогание), distressful (печальный)
  4. thoughtful (задумчивый), thoughtfulness (задумчивость), thoughtless (бездумный), thoughtlessness (бездумность)
  5. disagree (не соглашаться), agreement (соглашение), disagreement (расхождение), agreeable (соответствующий), disagreeable (неприятный)
  6. disuse (перестать употреблять), useful (полезный), misuse (неправильно использовать), useless (бесполезный), uselessness (бесполезность)
  7. dislike (не любить), likeness (сходство), unlikeness (несходство), unlike (непохожий)
  8. tasteless (безвкусный), tasteful (со вкусом), tastefulness (хороший вкус), distaste (отвращение), distasteful (противный)
  9. misunderstand (невернопонять), understandable (понятный), understandability (понятность)
  10. hopeless (безнадежный), hopeful (оптимистический), hopelessness (безнадежность), hopefulness (надежда)
  11. careless (беззаботный), careful (заботливый), carelessness (беззаботность), carefulness (тщательность)
  12. immortal (бессмертный), mortality (смертность), immortality (бессмертие)
  13. humanity (гуманность), inhuman (бесчеловечный), inhumanity (бесчеловечность)
  14. successful (успешный), unsuccessful (безуспешный)
  15. consciousness (сознательность), unconscious (бессознательный), unconsciousness (бессознательность)
  16. popularity (популярность), unpopular (непопулярный), unpopularity (непопулярность)
  17. profitable (прибыльный), profitability (прибыльность), unprofitable (нерентабельный)

Задание № 10. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

Контрольная работа для заочной формы обучения (Исб, Исбу) по дисциплине «Технический английский»

I вариант

Задание №1. Образуйте и переведите имена существительные от приведенных ниже глаголов с помощью суффиксов:

to decide, to equip, to allocate, to accumulate, to identify, to expose, to compute, to interact, to accomplish, to program.

Задание №2. Разделите приведенные ниже слова на три группы, определяя по суффиксу часть речи – существительное, прилагательное или наречие. Переведите слова.

Organization, functional, available, equipment, processor, completely, architectural, converter, convertible, controller, removable, logical, addition, additional, usually, accomplishment, operator.

Задание №3. Догадайтесь о значении следующих интернациональных слов и словосочетаний:

industrial design, phenomena of nature, automatization of production processes, components, utilization, coding, permanent.

Задание №4. Переведите следующие «цепочки существительных»:

1) a data processing system;

2) control signals;

3) electronic data interchange;

4) integrated circuits development;

5) communication means;

6) transmission line;

7) Acrobat forms extending;

8) C++ pseudo code algorithms foundations;

9) PCI express system architecture;

10) Designing storage area networks.

Задание №5. Расшифруйте и переведите следующие аббревиатуры:

Задание № 6. Переведите словосочетания, содержащие причастие:

1) binary code storing data and instructions;

2) electronic pulses moving at the speed of light;

3) keyboard terminals replacing vacuum tubes;

4) the given information;

5) the coded data;

6) the general – purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage;

7) the invention named ENIAC.

Задание № 7. Переведите предложения, содержащие причастие. Укажите форму и залог причастия.

1. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language.

2. While dealing with discrete quantities digital computers count rather than measure.

3. Being built on the basis of transistors lasers are successfully used in technology.

4. Declarations (описание) used in ALGOL provide the compiler with information about quantities appearing in the program.

5. Having finished the research the scientists made the analysis of the data obtained.

6. Having been transmitted to the central processing unit the instruction made arithmetic – logical unit perform some computations.

7. The computer SM-100 is used in industrial processes and scientific researches, its main function being to carry out reasonable operations with numbers and to calculate complex problems.

Задание № 8. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT

1. The central processing unit (CPU) or central processor is the nerve centre of any digital computer system, since it coordinates and controls the activities of all the other units and performs all the arithmetic and logic processes to be applied to data. All program instructions to be executed must be held within the CPU, and all the data to be processed must be loaded first into this unit. It is convenient to consider the central processor to have three separate hardware sections: an internal or main memory, an arithmetic and logic unit, and a control unit.

2. The CPU has two functions: it must (1) obtain instructions from the memory and interpret them, as well as (2) perform the actual operations. The first function is executed by the control unit. This unit in its turn mustperform two functions: it must (1) interpret the instruction; then, on the basis of this interpretation (2) tell the arithmetic and logic unit whatto do next. The latter function is accomplished through the use of electronic signals. According to these two functions we can separate the part of the control unit that interprets or decodes the instruction called the instruction decoder from the part that generates the control signals called the control generator.

3. An instruction having been transmitted to the instruction decoder, where it is interpreted, the control generator senses this interpretation and then produces signals that tell the arithmetic unit which operation to perform. It also generates signals that choose the proper numbers from the memory and sends them to the arithmetic and logic unit at the proper time; and when operation has been performed, other control signals take the result from the arithmetic and logic unit back to the internal memory. After an instruction has been executed, the control generator produces signals that cause the next instruction to go from the memory to the instruction decoder. In this way the instructions are performed sequentially.

4. The second function of the CPU is performed by the arithmetic and logic unit which does the actual operations. This unit is capable of performing automatically addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, comparing, selecting, and other mathematical and logical operations. Consider now what happens in the arithmetic and logic unit while an instruction is being executed. In most computers only one word at a time can be transferred between the arithmetic/logic unit and the memory. Hence, to perform an operation involving two arguments, the first argument must be transferred from the memory to the arithmetic/logic unit and stored there temporarily while the second argument is being transferred. The special memory cell in the arithmetic/logic unit for this purpose is called the accumulator. The operation being performed, the result is formed in the accumulator before it is transmitted back to memory.

5. Next consider the instruction decoder that interprets instruction. In order that the instruction decoder perform its function, it must constantly refer to the instruction being interpreted during the time control signals are being set up. To facilitate this, while an instruction is being executed it is stored in a special memory cell called the instruction register, located in the instruction decoder.

6. There is another memory cell located in the instruction decoder called the current-address register. The contents of this register is always the memory address from which the instruction being executed came. The reason for this is related to the fact that the address of the present instruction was given as part of the previous instruction.

For the computer designer to understand the work of the CPU is quite necessary.

Notes

during the time control signals are being set up — во время формирования сигналов управления

The reason for this is related to the fact — Причина этого заключена в том

Задание № 9. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

1.What is the general purpose and function of the CPU?

2.How many parts is the CPU composed of?

3.What is the general purpose of the control?

4.What is the arithmetic/ logic unit?

5.What is the instruction decoder?

6.What is the general function of the control generator?

7.What happens in the CPU while an instruction is being executed?

8.What is the accumulator?

9.Where is the accumulator located?

10.Where are the instruction register and the current- address register located?

Задание № 10. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.

SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

1. Most digital messages are vastly longer than just a few bits. Because it is neither practical nor economic to transfer all bits of a long message simultaneously, the message is broken into smaller parts and transmitted sequentially. Bit-serial transmission conveys a message one bit at a time through a channel. Each bit represents a part of the message. The individual bits are then reassembled at the destination to compose the message. In general, one channel will pass only one bit at a time. Thus, bit-serial transmission is necessary in data communications if only a single channel is available. Bit-serial transmission is normally just called serial transmission and is the chosen communications method in many computer peripherals.

2. Byte-serial transmission conveys eight bits at a time through eight parallel channels. Although the raw transfer rate is eight times faster than in bit-serial transmission, eight channels are needed, and the cost may be as much as eight times higher to transmit the message. When distances are short, it may nonetheless be both feasible and economic to use parallel channels in return for high data rates. The popular Centronics printer interface is a case where byte-serial transmission is used. As another example, it is common practice to use a 16-bit-wide data bus to transfer data between a microprocessor and memory chips; this provides the equivalent of 16 parallel channels. On the other hand, when communicating with a timesharing system over a modem, only a single channel is available, and bit-serial transmission is required.

3. The baud rate refers to the signalling rate at which data is sent through a channel and is measured in electrical transitions per second. In the EIA232 serial interface standard, one signal transition, at most, occurs per bit, and the baud rate and bit rate are identical. In this case, a rate of 9600 baud corresponds to a transfer of 9,600 data bits per second with a bit period of 104 microseconds (1/9600 sec.). If two electrical transitions were required for each bit, as is the case in non-return-to-zero coding, then at a rate of 9600 baud, only 4800 bits per second could be conveyed. The channel efficiency is the number of bits of useful information passed through the channel per second. It does not include framing, formatting, and error detecting bits that may be added to the information bits before a message is transmitted, and will always be less than one.

4. The data rate of a channel is often specified by its bit rate (often thought erroneously to be the same as baud rate). However, an equivalent measure channel capacity is bandwidth. In general, the maximum data rate a channel can support is directly proportional to the channel’s bandwidth and inversely proportional to the channel’s noise level.
5. A communications protocol is an agreed-upon convention that defines the order and meaning of bits in a serial transmission. It may also specify a procedure for exchanging messages. A protocol will define how many data bits compose a message unit, the framing and formatting bits, any error-detecting bits that may be added, and other information that governs control of the communications hardware. Channel efficiency is determined by the protocol design rather than by digital hardware considerations. Note that there is a tradeoff between channel efficiency and reliability — protocols that provide greater immunity to noise by adding error-detecting and -correcting codes must necessarily become less efficient.

II вариант

Задание №1. Образуйте и переведите имена существительные от приведенных ниже глаголов с помощью суффиксов:

to direct, to require, to determine, to protect, to transmit, to convert, to print, to eliminate, to use, to replace.

Урок английского языка по теме «Словобразвание в английском языке (суффиксация)»

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Задачи: повторить и обобщить правила словообразования (суффиксы существительного – —er/or/ar, -ist, -ant/ent, -(i)an, -ee).

1. Организация урока

Учащиеся читают, выборочно переводят слова и объясняют значение суффиксов – обозначают лицо, которое занимается определенной деятельностью.
Reader, dancer, botanist, economist, participant, historian, musician, grantee, licensee.

2. Обобщение грамматического материала: образование существительных с помощью суффиксов -er/or/ar, -ist, -ant/ent, -(i)an, -ee:

  • глагол + -er/or/ar
  • существительное/глагол/ прилагательное + -ist

motorist (автолюбитель), tourist (турист), nationalist (националист)

  • глагол + -ant/ent
  • существительное + -(i)an (национальность, звание, профессия)

librarian (библиотекарь), academician(академик), Canadian (канадец)

  • глагол + -ee (пассивность – лицо, на которое направлено действие)

3. Ознакомление с правилами написания образованных существительных

to drive + er = driver to cook + er = cooker run + er = runner
biology + ist = biologist piano + ist = pianist physics + ist = physicist

4. Тренировка в употреблении

Можно проводить в форме игры в командах на время. За каждое правильно образованное слово команды получают очко, за каждую ошибку – очко снимается.

1) Образуйте существительные глагол + -er/or/ar

catch
cook
drive
govern
instruct
invent
lead
manage
organize
own
catcher
cooker
driver
governor
instructor
inventor
leader
manager
organizer
owner

2) существительное/глагол/прилагательное + -ist/ast

art
biology
caricature
cycle
economy
ego
guitar
gym
piano
artist
biologist
сaricaturist
сyclist
economist
egoist
guitarist
gymnast
pianist

3) глагол + -ant/ent

assist – помогать
inhabit – населять
participate – участвовать
serve – служить
assistant
inhabitant
participant
servant

4) существительное + -(i)an (национальность, звание, профессия)

academy
electricity
History
magic
policy
Russia
tactics
technics
Ukrain
academician
electrician
Historian
magician
politician
Russian
tactician
technician
Ukrainian

5) глагол + -ее (лицо, на которое направлено действие)

to abandon – отказываться от права собственности
to adopt – усыновлять
to address – обращаться
to grant – дарить
to license – разрешать
to pay – платить
to train – обучать
to refuge – давать убежище
abandonee
adoptee
addressee
grantee
licensee
payee
trainee
refugee

6) Образуйте от данных существительных глаголы и переведите их на русский язык

actor
composer
conductor
director
fighter
founder
inventor
miner
sailor
sleeper
speaker
visitor
to act
to compose
to conduct
to direct
to fight
to found
to invent
to mine
to sail
to sleep
to speak
to visit

7) Образуйте от данных слов существительные и прилагательные, переведите их на русский язык

Canadian
capitalist
Hungarian
internationalist
specialist
socialist
statistician
guardian – опекун
mathematician
musician
physician – врач
Canada
capital
Hungary
international
special
social
statistics
guard – охрана
mathematics
music
physic – лекарство

8) Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные заглавными буквами в конце строк, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста

Alan Alexander Milne, the youngest of the family’s three sons, went to Westminster School at the age of 11 and then went on to Cambridge to become a (1)__________ .
But he never did. Instead he became an (2)_________ of the university journal “Granta” in which he published some of his light humorous poems.
Then he went to London hoping to earn his living as a (3)_______.
By and by London magazines began to publish his witty works, and in 1905 he published his first book, a shilling paper-back collection of humorous essays.
Aged only 24 he was given a post of (4)________ editor of the famous magazine “Punch”.
MATHEMATICS
EDIT
WRITE
ASSIST

Ключ: 1 mathematician 2 editor 3 writer 4 assistant

There are amateur cricket clubs all over England, but there is a big difference between the amateur and the professional (1)_________.
The amateur cannot get money for the game. The professional (2)_________ is in a much higher class.
He has to learn many kinds of skills. He has to be an athlete, a (3) ________ and (4) ______ and turn like a (5)_______.
He must be patient, and must not let other (6)_____________ be dishonest with him.
CRICKET
PLAY
RU
JUMP
GYM
COMPETITION

Ключ: 1 – cricketer; 2 – player; 3 – runner; 4 – jumper; 5 – gymnast; 6 – competitors.

I always wanted to be a great (1)_________. I had the dreams of discovering a new drug that would save the lives of hundreds of (2)________.
Unfortunately I was not a good (3)_________at chemistry and the (4)_________ used to be very cross with me.
After a while I decided I would become an (5)________ and design an amazing new production which would become a household name.
A few weeks later I had a brilliant idea for a pen that would write upside down.
To my disappointment a friend of mine pointed out that I was not a (6)________.
SCIENCE
PATIENCE
STUDY
TEACH
INVENT
PIONEERING

Ключ: 1 – scientist; 2 – patients; 3 – student; 4 – teacher; 5 – inventor; 6 – pioneer.

5. Заключение. Подведение итогов


источники:

http://poisk-ru.ru/s22599t15.html

http://urok.1sept.ru/articles/616953